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Sound organisational set up, effective delegation, human approach, effective communication and management by exception make supervision effective. Communication is a two-way process as it involves both information and understanding. Communication is said to be formal when it follows the formal channels provided in the organisation structure. It is informal communication, when it does not follow the formal channels.


They can understand the purpose of their actions and the feeling of involvement encourages them to use their initiative. Just ordering people to do something does not get the required results. Planning—defining goals, forecasting and working out schedules so that the right things are done in the right order.

The essence of communication is getting the receiver and the sender tuned together for a particular message. It refers to the exchange of ideas, feelings, emotions and knowledge and informations between two or more persons. Nothing happens in management till communication takes place. You should be skilled at observing action, measuring performance against standards, and deciding on and implementing necessary action.

Co-operation is essential for the achievement of co-ordination but it is not a substitute for co-ordination. However, both co-operation and co-ordination are essential in management. Co-ordination can be classified under two categories – vertical and horizontal co-ordination, and internal and external co-ordination. Co-ordination is internal when it is between different sections of the same concern and external when it is required with persons outside the organisation. Though supervision is performed at all levels of management, the major responsibility for supervision lies with the first line of management.

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Often, it is considered a part of planning because, by control­ling, we ensure that a plan progresses as per the original schema. However, we can differentiate them because planning precedes controlling.

  • This process is identified in a set of functions performed by managers to accomplish the goals.
  • Planning may be regarded as the process of determining objectives, discovering alternative courses of action and selecting an appropriate course of action for accomplishing goals.
  • In the absence of planning, no other managerial function can be performed.
  • Management is the process of getting things done through others.

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The departments work under organisational hierarchy, with established authority, responsibility and reporting relationships. Example – Every business has to decide about the product it would deal in, the markets it would focus, whether it would produce or trade etc. all these decisions are part of PLANNING.

Communication flows downward from a superior to subordinates and upward from subordinates to a superior. It also flows between two or more persons operating at the same level of authority. The word ‘communication’ has been derived from the Latin word ‘communis’ which means ‘common’.

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You should be able to lead people in the right way and in the right direction, communicate effectively, and above all, motivate them to perform well. Knowing the reasons for doing something enables people to work more efficiently and as per prescribed standards.

Dhaval Jain Working with online services for the past 1 years. I love digital marketing and anything that start with ''online'' is a subject of study for me. I believe in hard work with smartness and being a successful person in life. In my daily routine my work is a game that I love to playing for day and night.

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